We’ve found bacteria that can be used to clean the chewing gums – … Les problèmes d’estomac qui peuvent apparaître dans ces situations sont l’irritation, les … The researchers also discovered the woman carried Epstein-Barr virus—a very common member of the herpesvirus family—and several strains of virus responsible for pneumonia. Fortunately, no one has yet tried to coin the word gumomics. Sources : draxe.com. Age “chewing gum” yields 5,700 year-old human genome and oral microbiome. The woman may have worked the tar until it was pliable enough to repair a piece of pottery or a polished flint tool—birch tar was a common Stone Age adhesive. Subscribers get more award-winning coverage of advances in science & technology. Ancient “Chewing Gum” Reveals a 5,700-Year-Old Microbiome. Euro (EUR) Franc suisse (CHF) Pound (GBP) South Korean won (KRW) US Dollar (USD) Yen (JPY) Yuan (CNY) English. The team did determine that she was lactose-intolerant, which would have been common among hunter-gatherers before the adoption of animal husbandry. Le chewing-gum est également à l’origine de migraines et de maux de têtes violents chez les enfants et les adolescents. Behind them, the woman and her kin built weirs to trap fish that they skewered with bone-tipped spears. Les champs obligatoires sont indiqués avec *. Although they successfully identified 26 virulence factors, or molecules that make pathogens more effective at infecting hosts, they were unable to determine the woman’s health status. “For studies of human health and environment, this type of material is just priceless,” she says. Written by TE in Global, Nature. The results, published Tuesday in Nature Communications, highlight the potential of chewed birch pitch as a source of ancient human and microbial DNA, which can be used to shed light on the population histories, health statuses and subsistence strategies of ancient people. Experts of the University of Copenhagen have been able to extract a complete human genome from a “chewing gum” which is thousands of years old. Each chewing gum provides 100% of the recommended fluoride and vitamin D content. Chewing gum has also been shown to have beneficial effects in the prevention of dental caries by increasing the flow of saliva (Dodds, 2012). Aucune différence statistiquement significative n’a été trouvée entre les deux groupes concernant les paramètres analysés dans les échantillons de référence; cependant, les échantillons de suivi du groupe test ont montré une numération bactérienne salivaire totale significativement plus faible que ceux du groupe témoin. © 2021 Scientific American, a Division of Springer Nature America, Inc. Support our award-winning coverage of advances in science & technology. C’est une question qui se pose après avoir lu le travail de chercheurs danois sur un bout de résine de bouleau mâchée vieux de 5700 ans. “It’s very difficult to put that microbiome into context without further analysis of other hunter-gatherers.”. “We have this inconspicuous little lump of birch pitch that someone discarded thousands of years ago, and suddenly we’re able to conjure up this person from it,” says Hannes Schroeder, an archaeologist at the University of Copenhagen and the paper’s corresponding author. Search. Cheveux noirs, yeux bleus et peau foncée The ancient chewing gum acted as a time capsule, storing information about her oral microbiome, the bacteria that lived in her mouth, as well. Order Biocyte Microbiote Oral Care 8 Chewing Gums at the best price in a secure online pharmacy. But it doesn’t stop there. Toward the end of the Stone Age, in a small fishing village in southern Denmark, a dark-skinned woman with brown  hair and piercing blue eyes chewed on a sticky piece of hardened birch tar. Currency : EUR. A practical format to take everywhere, to be taken after a meal. Il existe encore des fabricants de chewing-gum qui utilisent de vrais ingrédients, à l’ancienne mais ils sont parfois plus difficiles à trouver. Stone Age “Chewing Gum” Yields 5,700-year-old Human Genome and Oral Microbiome Thousands of years ago in what is now Denmark a young Neolithic woman chewed on a birch pitch.DNA analysis of this prehistoric “chewing gum” has now revealed, in remarkable detail, what she looked like. According to Schroeder and his colleagues, the Syltholm woman’s genome indicates she was not related to communities of farmers that did live in Denmark around the same time. Dans cette étude interventionnelle, un essai contrôlé randomisé a été utilisé pour évaluer les effets à court terme du “I think the ancient DNA field, moving forward, has a lot to offer in human genome–human microbiome coevolution,” Weyrich says. Furthermore, … Effects of short-term xylitol gum chewing on the oral microbiome. Kills your good bacteria Chewing gum has been suggested to have many cognitive benefits such as increasing focus and alertness, improving memory, and controlling, besides its obvious benefit of making breath smell minty fresh. Et l’analyse des restes du microbiome oral préservés dans ce vieux chewing-gum a pu offrir un instantané de sa vie. Clinical Oral Investigations, 2014. Introduction Xylitol, a naturally occurring five-carbon polyol (sugar alcohol), is used in several products, including chewing gum, as a sugar substitute; it has been shown to have beneficial effects in the maintenance of oral health. Though its popularity and constituent ingredients have changed over time, chewing gum has been used by humans for thousands of years. Schroeder and his colleagues identified a host of microbial taxa from the sample, some of which were part of the community of microbes that live, often harmlessly, in and on humans called the microbiome. (They changed again during the industrial revolution, when refined sugars and vegetable oils came to dominate the menu.) Stone Age “chewing gum” yields 5,700-year-old human genome and oral microbiome. Le nombre total de bactéries salivaires a été quantifié à l’aide d’un système de PCR quantitatif en temps réel. Chewing gum can negatively impact gut bacteria, as I’ll discuss below. La lumière du soleil est-elle suffisante pour un statut suffisant en vitamine D chez les enfants et les adolescents? Could gum help prevent cavities in the same way as tooth brushing or flossing? Effet du fluorure de diammine d’argent et du verre ionomère sur la reminéralisation des caries dentinaires naturelles, La justification de la supplémentation en sélénium dans les maladies inflammatoires de l’intestin, Association entre l’état de santé bucco-dentaire et l’apport alimentaire futur et la qualité de l’alimentation chez les hommes âgés, le fer peut ne pas améliorer la fertilité, Dangers transmissibles par l’alimentation, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30429438-effects-of-xylitol-containing-chewing-gum-on-the-oral-microbiota, Journal of Nutrition and Intermediary Metabolism. Jim Daley is a science journalist based in Chicago. Scientific American is part of Springer Nature, which owns or has commercial relations with thousands of scientific publications (many of them can be found at, Food-Industry-Backed Research Gives Results Funders Want, New Analysis Shows, New Scientist-Candidates for U.S. Congress Fared Worse Than Expected in 2020, U.S. Exits Paris Climate Accord after Trump Stalls Global Warming Action for Four Years. (1) Institut GFK. Conclusions: This study has shown that chewing gum containing maltitol had minor effects on the composition of the plaque microbiome. “C’est la première fois que [des scientifiques] extraient autant d’informations d’autre chose que des os ou des dents”, insiste Science. Et si ce chewing-gum abandonné sous une chaise, plus qu’un signe de négligence crasse, était un don de patrimoine biologique à destination des futures générations de généticiens? Archaeologists reconstructed a Neolithic woman’s complete genome and oral microbiome … According to the researchers, it is a new untapped source of ancient DNA. Une trouvaille rare, assure Céline Bon. Chewing gum manufacturers have been turning to an ingredient called titanium dioxide for years. Amazingly, they were able to extract the woman’s complete genome from the birch tar, along with her oral microbiome and DNA from food she may have recently eaten. Researchers were able to detect traces of DNA that revealed pathogens, including potential Epstein-Barr virus, one of the most common human viruses that can serve as the gateway to mononucleosis, also known as glandular fever. Chu Rouen . A. naeslundii HOT-176 and Actinomyces HOT-169 were significantly reduced following use of maltitol chewing gum in patients. Ancient “Chewing Gum” Reveals a 5,700-Year-Old Microbiome December 17, 2019 102 Toward the end of the Stone Age, in a small fishing village in southern Denmark, a dark-skinned woman with brown hair and piercing blue eyes chewed on a sticky piece of hardened birch tar. Kashuba, who was not involved in the new study, says that if archaeologists recover more ancient-microbiome samples, they could begin to piece together the evolutionary history of bacteria and viruses that are connected to human health. At the time, “next-generation sequencing was starting to revolutionize ancient DNA studies,” he says. Full genome of a human (and her oral microbes) recovered from Stone Age chewing gum This is the first time the full genome of an ancient human has been extracted from a … Laura Weyrich, a paleomicrobiologist at Pennsylvania State University, who was not involved in either study, says it is difficult to draw broad conclusions about the Syltholm woman’s diet—or even the exact composition of her oral microbiome—from a piece of chewed gum. Ce chewing-gum primitif les aiderait probablement à se nettoyer les dents, à atténuer la faim voire à satisfaire un simple plaisir gustatif. English. Nederlands. Nous avons trouvé des bactéries qui peuvent être utilisées pour nettoyer les chewing-gums, car elles les mangent! Anecdotally, some folks have heartburn or indigestion from chewing gum, since acid levels rise to match the food your body expects to digest, only to find it never arrives. Gum can also cause bloating if you swallow air while chewing. microbiome; saliva; xylitol. Français. اللغة العربية. Le traitement au phosphopeptide de caséine et au fluorure de phosphate de calcium amorphe enrichit le microbiome symbiotique de la plaque dentaire chez les enfants. A new study out of Denmark that analysed a 5,700-year-old piece of chewing gum made from birch bark pitch has succeeded in extracting a complete human genome from the pitch, demonstrating its potential as a new source of ancient DNA. Russian. COPENHAGEN, Denmark: Though its popularity and constituent ingredients have changed over time, chewing gum has been used by humans for thousands of years. Chewing gum can aid in soothing acid reflux. Baseline and follow-up stimulated saliva samples were collected and the salivary microbial composition was assessed using the 16S rRNA gene next-generation sequencing analysis. Saliva samples were collected at baseline and from 0 to 2, 2 to 5, 5 to 10, 10 to 15, and … Archaeologists reconstructed a Neolithic woman’s complete genome and oral microbiome from a piece of birch tar she chewed. Discover world-changing science. Other oral bacteria species the team found in the gum can cause periodontal disease. pixabay.com Archaeologists, however, do not yet know whether hunter-gatherers in the region independently adopted farming or if new arrivals brought it with them. She was descended from a genetic group archaeologists refer to as Western hunter-gatherers, who began settling in Scandinavia via a southern route as early as 11,700 years ago. Microbiome Discovered in the Syltholm Tar The sample found at Syltholm by Schroeder and his team revealed that the woman who chewed the tar was a carrier of microbiome, which are microbes that live in and on humans without doing any harm. In any case, when she discarded the tar, it was sealed away under layers of sand and silt for some 5,700 years until a team of archaeologists found it. Effects - Helps to maintain the mineralisation of the teeth and to fight against dental plaque - Helps reduce dry mouth that causes bad breath - Contributes to the maintenance of normal dentition. Português PT. It’s a new untapped source of ancient DNA, according to the researchers . When researchers from the University of Copenhagen analysed a 5,700-year-old piece of chewing gum made from birch bark pitch, they succeeded in extracting a complete human genome from the pitch. Researchers have succeeded in extracting a complete human genome from a thousands-of-years old 'chewing gum.' 中文. A partir de cet échantillon, ils ont pu reconstituer le génome complet de l’individu ayant … Farming spread to Denmark relatively late—arriving around the time the Syltholm woman lived—but once there, it probably caught on quickly. The Syltholm birch tar sample—along with the genomic information concealed in it—was likely so well-preserved because it was buried in an oxygen-free environment, says Natalija Kashuba, an archaeologist at Uppsala University in Sweden and lead author of the paper published in May. S t on e A ge “ch ew in g gu m ” yield s 5,700 year­ old h u m an gen om e an d oral m icrob iom e Des échantillons de salive stimulés de base et de suivi ont été collectés et la composition microbienne salivaire a été évaluée à l’aide de l’analyse de séquençage de nouvelle génération du gène ARNr 16S. COPENHAGEN, Denmark: Though its popularity and constituent ingredients have changed over time, chewing gum has been used by humans for thousands of years. Chewing with an artificial sweetener may, in the long term, change your oral and gut microbiome.” This is where your choice in gum is really important; Dr. Lin recommends buying sugar-free gum that’s not packed with chemicals (here is a list of eight brands of “clean gum”). Et c’est aujourd’hui un « chewing-gum » vieux de 5.700 ans que des chercheurs ont analysé. The village, dubbed Syltholm by modern archaeologists, was near a coastal lagoon that was protected from the Baltic Sea by sandy barrier islands. Chewing gum could be a vector of bacterial diseases quite long after being thrown to the ground. “I thought these ‘chewing gums’ could be a source of DNA.” Jensen’s colleagues were able to pull the partial DNA of three individuals from lumps of birch tar dated to about 10,000 years ago and published their findings in Communications Biology in May. Or she might have simply been enjoying what amounted to Neolithic chewing gum. 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