[44][53][54], Following Apraksin's removal, command of the Russian field forces was transferred to William Fermor. Most prominent among them was a one Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov, a childhood friend from Peter's days with the mock troops. 1700 Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700) Russia Habsburg Monarchy … He had resorted to the ad-hoc appointment before, but by the time of the Great Northern War this was quickly proving tedious, necessitating the change. What Peter lacked most was specialization; he relied on irregular forces such as Cossacks and nomads for the light cavalry roles of scouting, skirmishing, and raiding, as his proper cavalry were exclusively dragoons, which rode on horseback but dismounted in battle and fought on foot. As a major European power, Russia could not escape the wars involving revolutionary and Napoleonic France. Sweden handed over Bremen and Verden to Holstein in return for financial and naval support. On 25 August 1758, following 2 hours of bombardment, the Prussian left engaged the Russians in what quickly became a murderous exchange of volleys. The Swedes, with their empire broken and nothing left to lose, continued to fight. Frederick once again nearly met disaster when his army, encamped at Hochkirch, was nearly overrun by the Austrians. France quickly shot back at Prussia by signing an alliance with Austria, an alliance that Russia, with the caveat of non-aggression against Poland, now joined. Russia maintained a scorched earth policy of retreat broken only by the battle of Borodino (September 7), when the Russians stood and fought. With Azov now firmly under Russian control, the campaign shifted east along the Black Sea. After a month of attrition, a force of 2,000 cossacks stormed the fort and, although rebuffed, captured part of its outer workings. [40][41], Encouraged and somewhat alarmed by the sudden Russian gains, Austria joined the war in 1736, aiming to seize control of a part of the Turkish Balkans for itself. Charles XII proved to be an unprecedented military genius and far superior a commander then his foes had expected. Following the death of Peter's old ally Augustus II of Poland, an election to throne a new king. with the Swedes, keeping Estonia, Livonia, Ingria, and part of southern Finland (especially Saint Petersburg) in exchange for the return of most of Finland to the Swedes and the payment of 2 million silver riksdaler. Thus, he was able to launch a fleet of 30 seagoing vessels and over 1,000 transports north of Azov in April 1696. [18][19][20], The Russians, enjoying a 3 to 1 numerical advantage, expected Charles XII to wait for reinforcements before attacking; but in another daring move, the Swedish forces, under cover of a blizzard, opted instead for a surprise attack on the Russian line. In return, Peter was able to extricate himself from the situation, and continued to hold a dominant position in the Great Northern War. Two revolutions in 1917 changed Russia for good. Prussia, in European history, any of three historical areas of eastern and central Europe. https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › List_of_wars_involving_Russia Russia's westward expansion under Catherine resulted from the partitioning of Poland. Finding promises of release from serfdom insufficient, Peter began drafting soldiers, starting with a levy calling for 1 man for every 50 households. These new regiments rode the heaviest horses in Russia at the time. Peter had the bodies of hundreds of streltsy hung outside her window to remind her of the consequences of confronting him. The two countries often attempted to pass the burden of battle to one another. His commanders in the Crimean War were old and incompetent, and indeed so were his muskets as the colonels sold the best equipment and the best food. [36][37], Peter had crowned his second wife, Catherine, empress of Russia in 1724, strengthening her claim to the throne and making her a leading candidate, alongside Peter's grandson Peter Alekseyevich. Finally, proceeding the War, in August and September 1721, the Treaty of Nyastad was signed between Sweden and Russia. The Table was Peter's way of handling the appointment of nobility, as well as organizing Russian military positions; Peter had not appointed any new boyars, and the old honor code of mestnichestvo, which placed more stress on hereditary origins then on actual skill, had been rightfully abolished in 1682. Never placing much importance in rank or origin, Peter began recruiting skilled specialists out of every corner of the Russian empire, including serfs, foreigners, clergymen, and foreign specialists along with the usual boyars. Sweden ceded Stettin, South Pomerania, the islands of Usedom and Wollin in return for money. He moved his army from Kyiv down through Poland, skirting wide of the Black Sea, before crossing the Dnester into Moldavia, aiming to sever it from Turkish rule. Menshikov was exiled to Siberia, where he died in 1729. Nonetheless, she did much to reincarnate Peter's reign; upon gaining the throne, she immediately restored the Senate and scattered Anna's German administration, sentencing both Münnich and Ostermann to death (a sentence commuted to exile at the scaffold). The terms of the treaty fell far short of the goals of Catherine's reputed "Greek project": the expulsion of the Ottomans from Europe and the renewal of a Byzantine Empire under Russian control. The remainder of the Russian troops were mopped up with ease; only three groups, Peter's elite troops and one light infantry brigade, actually put up a reasonable fighting retreat, using supply wagons as improvised defenses. Peter scraped money to finance his new campaign out of every hole he could find, raising taxes, creating new ones, monopolizing the salt trade, and debasing the currency, anything he could do to raise more cash. Although the Polish resisted for 6 years, they were finally forced out of the war following Swedish victory, again at impossible odds, at the Battle of Fraustadt. Cambridge University Press, 2004. In 1772 the three agreed on an initial partition of Polish territory, by which Russia received parts of Belarus and Livonia.  Greece [40][41], 1738 proved inconclusive for the Russians. [18][19][20], By the time Peter became involved, the coalition was already falling apart. Because of the large distances involved, the Russian army would need a long supply train, and any one campaign would be vulnerable to getting cut off by actions against this baggage trail. 1697 marked the death of Charles XI, king of Sweden. [18][19][20], Peter tempered this new army in attacks on the Swedish holdings of Livonia and Ingria on the Baltic shore. However, Frederick's left column, intending to support attack on the Russian right, instead drifted towards the center and stalled out in the engagement. Caught off-guard, thinly stretched, and vulnerable to penetration by the skilled Swedish army, the ensuing battle quickly turned into a rout, with the panicked Russian troops attempting to swim over the frigid Narova River, many drowning in its freezing waters. He disbanded superfluous units and introduced numerous improvements in financial management, whilst continuing the status quo of letting the navy rot at anchor. He also worked to improve Russian artillery, even introducing some innovations of his own design, although he tended to get carried away by technical gimmicks. Roman Catholic Poles resented their loss of independence, however, and proved difficult to integrate. 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